This is a list of common terms used when referencing R2O activities, and their definitions in that context.

Analyst: An analyst is a member of a research team, potentially with strong connections to operational users, that keeps the research project aligned for eventual transition as part of the R2O cycle. Analysts have strong scientific and technical credentials, and can provide leadership to the research team on par with the project manager through establishing R2O-related goals. Analysts ideally continue to represent the research team following initial development.

Community: The community is the collection of research teams, user groups, and supporting entities in a related field or working to achieve a common mission. Generally, the community consists of academia, governments, and the private sector.

Demonstration: A demonstration is an interaction between a research team and group of operational users to examine and/or evaluate a new research product, or multiple products, in the native operational environment. Formal feedback may or may not be collected, but, at a minimum, information about operational usage is studied. The duration of demonstrations spans from several weeks to a year or more, depending on feedback.

Facilitator: See liaison.

Liaison: A liaison is a subject-matter expert that serves as an advocate for a research program amongst operational users. Ideally, the liaison will also have certain technical skills that enable integration of test products into information technology systems. Liaisons facilitate demonstrations and testbeds as a service to the research community. They also prepare reports and make recommendations based on their experience with the operational users they represent.

Operational: Operational status is achieved when a deliverable is ready for operations to use, and, at a minimum, predefined consistency and reliability requirements are met. Read more…

Operations: Operations is a group of practitioners that apply information, research results, and knowledge of their field and users to create novel deliverables in achieving a practical mission on behalf of the rest of the organization or community.

Practitioners: The subset of users that is knowledgeable in the science.

Proving ground: A proving ground is an coordinated activity between the research community and operational users where new research is packaged for evaluation, often in the form of products, training is prepared for the users, and users are first exposed to new research results or products. The proving ground is often the first iteration of the R2O cycle where initial demonstrations occur. Proving grounds can also leverage testbeds for more mature products.

R2O: Research to operations. Read more…

Research: Research is an investigation that seeks to increase learning and discovery in pursuit of new facts and conclusions, or for the purpose of recommending improvements to observing systems that contribute to subsequent research.

Solution: A R2O solution is the best presentation of research results in the form of a deliverable for the use of a practitioner operationally, usually in real time. A solution is designed to convey pertinent specialized information from a scientific study in the most effective manner possible, with a design that draws practitioner attention to the important or urgent components for further analysis.

Subject-matter expert: A subject-matter expert (SME) is widely recognized as an authentic and original individual with longstanding experience and heightened comprehension of a specific field or discipline, or subarea thereof, who continuously demonstrates critical thinking and problem-solving skills related to the subject as it evolves. Read more…

Technical system: A technical system is a collection of hardware and software that provides a user with data and information. Technical systems used in operations should be accessible to research groups while working on R2O efforts.

Testbed: A testbed is a specialized environment specifically designed to have operational users evaluate relatively new research results and products in performing routine tasks. Formal feedback is collected. The qualifications for testbed products vary, but the goal of the testbed is to determine the viability of a new product compared to existing methods and products, or other new products. Testbeds generally limit direct interaction of researchers with users.

Transition: A transition is the advancement of new or mature research into the operational space for evaluation or routine use.

Users: Users are a consumer of a product or information, generally for their benefit.